FIAC Racing Rules
2/1/2003††††††††† Rules on track, road and cyclocross adopted by unanimous email vote of board of directors.
[Statements below in brackets, such as this, are recommended penalties for rule infractions.]
Remarks in sans serif typeface, such as this, are interpretations or comments and not formal rules. †Note that rules regarding such things as race permits, rider categories, rider clothing and racing numbers do not appear here but are administered by the member associations.
1.† GENERAL RACING RULES
1A1† Additional Rules and Regulations
These rules apply to all races permitted by FIAC or its member associations.† However the Association may augment or amend these rules and shall establish administrative procedures including due process guidelines and procedures for suspending organizers, clubs or licensees and for hearing and deciding appeals of such suspensions. Upon the issuance of a suspension or the lifting thereof, the member organization taking the action shall promptly report the information to all other member organizations, which shall honor the action taken.
1A2† General and Special Rules
a.† These rules apply to all riders from the time they register until all prizes have been awarded.
b.† A race organizer may use special rules for particular events only with prior approval of the Association and Chief Referee. Any such rules must be made available to the participants in written form before the race.
c. Any rule about a specific event takes precedence over more general rules.
For example, the rule concerning the start of a cyclocross race takes precedence over general rules on starts.
a.† Association Ė the organization that establishes rules and regulations for the conduct of bicycle races and that contracts with the Race Organizer to put on the specific event. For ordinary events the Association is a FIAC member association.† For national championships the Association is FIAC.
b.† Bicycle race - a competition between people who are riding bicycles.
c. Elite Ė riders of all ages. If followed by an age range, only riders with racing ages in the specified range are included.
d.† Official Race Announcement - a document that describes all the particulars of a race meet.
e.† Event Permit- an authorization issued by an Association to an organizer to conduct a bicycle race.
f.† Invitational Race- a race in which only riders who are invited by the organizer may compete. Such events may be organized only with special permission from the Association.
g. Junior Ė rider with a racing age less than 18. If followed by an age range, only riders with racing ages in the specified range are included.
h. Licensees - persons holding a membership or license in an Association, such as riders, officials, and coaches.
i. Master -- rider with a racing age of 30 or greater. If followed by an age range, only riders with racing ages in the specified range are included.
j. Mishap- a crash, puncture, or breakage of an essential part of the bicycle. Problems caused by inadequate preparation, including misassembly or inadequate tightening of any component, are not mishaps.
The following are mishaps: falling during a race or having a flat tire caused by puncture, a broken seat post, spoke or other essential component. The following are NOT mishaps: being delayed by a crash, a puncture caused by the tire coming off due to inadequate gluing, a loose seat post, handlebar stem or spoke.
k. Official - an individual appointed by the Association to oversee the conduct of the race and to ensure compliance with these rules.
l. Organizer - the person who contracts with the Association to be responsible for the organization of the bicycle race.
m.† Penalty - a punishment for infraction of the rules. Penalties can be applied to individual riders or teams. Penalties may include but are not limited to the following:
††††††††††† 1.† Warning - it may be written or verbal,
††††††††††† 2.† Relegation - a loss of position,
3. Time penalty - time added to a riderís time (usually only applies to time trials and stage races),
4.† Disqualification - elimination from all placings and prizes and elimination from any subsequent heats (if any),
5.† Suspension - ineligibility to compete in FIAC events for a period of time,
6.† Fine - collected by the Chief Referee and paid to the Association.
n.† Prize List - all prizes and primes to be awarded by the Organizer.
o.† Protest- a formal request by a rider or team manager to have the Chief Referee review a race decision or to have the Chief Judge review the results.
p.† Race Meet - one or more races covered by a single contract between the Organizer and Association, not necessarily limited to a single day.
q.† Race Entry - the process of submitting an entry form, paying a fee and making a commitment to compete.
r.† Race Series- a sequence of race meets conducted on a regular basis at the same or different locations that are tied together by an overall prize list.
s.† Race Registration - the process of presenting a license and picking up race information or numbers, normally conducted at the race site.
t.† Racing Age - riderís age on December 31 of the current year.
a.† The officials at a race may include: Chief Referee, Chief Judge, Chief Timer, Assistant Referees, Assistant Judges, Assistant Timers, and Starter. There shall always be a Chief Referee, who shall be licensed by a member association. The presence of the other types of officials depends upon the type of event.
b.† All officials shall enforce the regulations impartially.
c.† Officials shall wear a uniform as specified by the Association.
a.† The Chief Referee is the onsite representative of the Association and is responsible for the proper conduct of the event. The Chief Referee shall interpret and enforce these rules and those of the Association and may, if necessary, alter the conditions of any race in the interest of safety, including canceling a race. The Chief Referee shall:
1.† Make the final decision in any case not specifically covered by these rules. Any such decision is not subject to appeal;
2.† Make the final decision on any penalties to be imposed other than suspensions;
3.† Supervise the other working officials on site;
4.† Ensure that the organizer has fulfilled all necessary conditions to ensure a safe and fair race;
5.† Render the final decision on any question concerning entries, including ruling on eligibility of a rider for a given race;
6.† Submit any recommendations for suspension to the Association immediately following an event by e-mail, fax, or regular mail.
b.† Assistant Referees work under the direction of the Chief Referee and shall report to the Chief Referee whenever a rule infraction is observed or when otherwise appropriate. They shall submit a written report to the Chief Referee immediately after the finish of the race if there are any incidents or infractions to report.
a.† The Chief Judge is responsible for determining the order of finish of any race that is not a time trial. The Chief Judge shall:
1.† Use input from the assistant judges, but the ultimate decision is solely from the Chief Judge;
2.† Use any photo finish or other appropriate equipment available in order to make the best possible decision regarding placement of riders.
3.† Attempt to place as many riders as possible in each race.
4.† Ensure that scoring for any special program points or category implemented by the Association is done.
b.† Assistant Judges shall work under the Chief Judge and provide information the Chief Judge requests.
a.† The Chief Timer shall be responsible for the results of any time trial event. The Chief Timer and the Chief Judge may be a combined position.
b.† Assistant Timers work under the direction of the Chief Timer, Assistant Timers and
Judges may be combined positions.
The starter is responsible for the start of the race.
In many cases, the Chief Referee takes this responsibility and no separate starter is appointed.
1D† EQUIPMENT AND CLOTHING
The Chief Referee may disallow the start of any rider using equipment or clothing deemed dangerous or inadequate and may disqualify any rider whose equipment or clothing is found to be dangerous during the event. All clothing and equipment shall be in good repair and reasonably clean at the start.
a.† Selection of equipment and uniform are solely the responsibility of the rider.† FIAC and its member associations assume no responsibility for safety or performance of any items selected by the rider. Each rider is responsible for proper maintenance of his/her clothing and equipment.
b.† Neither FIAC nor any member association makes any warranties or representations, regarding the protective adequacy or fitness for competition of any helmets. A rider, by entering an event conducted under these rules, agrees to hold FIAC and its member organizations harmless from any and all claims arising from the use of any particular helmet.
a.† A rider must wear his or her helmet at all times while on the racing course [disqualification for failure to wear such a helmet or for removal of helmet during race].† The wearing of helmets is mandatory at all times when a participant is involved in an event.
b.† Each rider must wear a helmet that offers sufficient protection against head injury and does not restrict the riderís vision. Upon request by an official, the rider shall also provide documentary proof that the helmet meets one of the following standards:
1.† American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Standard Z90.4;
2.† Snell Memorial Foundation Standard ďBĒ or ďNĒ Series;
3.† American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard F-1447;
4.† Canadian Standards Association (CSA)-CAN/CSA D113.2-M;
5.† U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) standard for bicycle helmets;
6.† U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) motorcycle helmet standard;
c.† All motorcycle drivers and passengers must wear U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) approved helmets.
d.† For mountain bike races, eye protection is strongly recommended. For downhill events, additional padding and helmets providing added protection is strongly recommended.
Examples: full-face helmet, body armor, elbow and kneepads, and full finger gloves.
a.† Bicycles must be propelled solely by the riderís legs. No stored propulsion mechanism is allowed.
b.† Bicycles must be no more than 2 meters long and 75 cm wide. Tandems may be up to 3
c.† Nothing may be added to the basic bicycle to reduce air resistance except that spoke covers may be used.
d.† Bicycles used in road, cyclocross or mountain bike races shall have a freewheel and at least two brakes that are in good working condition.† However in individual road time trials a fixed gear without freewheel may be used, in which case the brake on the rear wheel may be omitted. Track bicycles normally shall have a fixed gear with no freewheel and no brakes, but the Organizer may specify that road bicycles be used.† Track and road bicycles may not be mixed in the same event, however.
e.† The handlebars and stem shall not present a danger. Handlebar ends shall be solidly plugged and handlebar ends that point up or forward may not be used in mass start events except in mountain bike events, where handlebar extensions are allowed.† In road time trials handlebars that point up or forward may be used.
f.† Carrying glass containers is strictly forbidden.
1E† RACE CONDUCT
1E1 Start of the Race
a.† It is the responsibility of each rider to be at the start line on time. No race shall start before the time stated in the official race announcement unless every registered rider is present and agrees to the earlier start time.
b.† If more than one massed start race is to be on the course concurrently, starting intervals should be chosen so as to ensure that different groups will not overlap.
c.† All riders shall start in the same manner, with one foot on the ground, with holders, or with a rolling start, as determined by the Starter.
d.† The start shall be signaled by a single gunshot, whistle, flag, or verbal command. The Starter alone determines the validity of the start. The stopping or neutralizing of the race because of a false start shall be signaled by a double gunshot or double whistle. An honorary Starter may be requested by the organizer but shall have no official function except to give the start signal.
1E2† Neutralizing or Stopping
a.† The Chief Referee or a referee designated by the Chief Referee may neutralize or halt a race for safety or fairness.† The official shall give an appropriate signal, and the riders shall either maintain their positions or stop, according to directions given by the referee.
b.† The riders shall restart only when directed to do so by the referee.
a.† A ringing of a bell shall signify the beginning of the last lap. A ď1Ē shall be displayed on the lap card. If the bell is rung on the wrong lap, the Chief Referee shall determine whether the finish will be on that lap or at the originally planned lap.
b.† A rider finishes when the riderís front tire first penetrates the imaginary vertical plane above the leading edge of the finish line.
c.† If two or more riders are in a dead heat for first place, they shall ride the final part of the race (normally 1000 meters) to break the dead heat. If a dead heat is not for first place, the riders shall be placed equal and any prizes shall be split between them.
d.† Once the first rider has finished, the Chief Referee may excuse any rider from completing the entire distance if the result is a foregone conclusion.†
e.† The Chief Judge shall compile the results as quickly as possible and ensure that a copy is posted for the riders to inspect.
f.† The Chief Referee shall keep the Chief Judge informed about any decision or pending decision specific to the race that could affect the results.
1E4† Rider Conduct
a.† A rider shall not benefit from his or her misconduct nor shall a team benefit from the misconduct of one or more of its members.
b.† It is the riderís responsibility to know the starting time, the course and the rules of the event. It is forbidden to take any other route.
c.† The following forms of misconduct may be punished at the discretion of the Chief Referee. This list is not all inclusive:
1.† Fraud (including falsifying information on an entry) theft or grossly unsportsmanlike conduct;
2.† Dangerous Riding;
3.† Failure to follow a refereeís order;
4.† Using foul or abusive language or conduct toward any individual;
5.† Causing any race to have a result other than on the merits of the riders;
6.† Making an abrupt motion which interferes with the forward progress of another rider;
7.† Completing any part of the course without a bicycle (it is not required to ride the bicycle, but it must be kept with the rider);
8.† Not maintaining equipment properly so that it is dangerous, such as insufficient glue on tires;
9.† Pushing or holding another rider (whether on a different team or not);
10.† Riding on the race course when not entered in an event in progress;
11.† Taking pace from a vehicle or from a rider in a different race;
12.† Violating any other racing rules.
d.† A rider who has been disqualified shall not be entitled to a refund and cannot claim any prize moneys, including primes.
a.† Protests can only be made by and against riders in the same event.
b.† All protests concerning results shall be promptly resolved by the Chief Judge, whose decision is final and beyond appeal. Any protest about the results must be lodged within 15 minutes of posting of race results.
c. †At the discretion of the Chief Judge, protests of finish results outside of the placement for prize lists, upgrading or special competition points (e.g. BAR, BAT) may not be considered.
d.† The Chief Referee shall resolve all protests concerning qualification of rider(s) or equipment before the start of the event. The Chief Referee must make a decision before allowing the race to start.
e.† Protests concerning incidents during the race shall be presented to the Chief Referee in writing. They must be submitted within 15 minutes of the protesterís finish in one-day events and before the start of the next stage in stage or series races.
f.† The Chief Referee shall promptly rule on any protests and communicate them to all parties involved. Any decision regarding a protests not covered by these rules shall be documented and submitted to the designated representative of the Association.
An appeal of a protest decision by the Chief Referee alleging misapplication of the rules may be submitted to the Association by the rider in written form within one week of the decision with a non-refundable appeal fee of $25.00. The Association shall make a ruling that shall be the final decision.
Prizes shall be distributed 15 minutes after the final posting of results and when permission has been given to do so by the Chief Judge.
1F† NATIONAL CHAMPIONSHIPS
1F1 Only riders who hold a current annual license from a FIAC member association may win placings in National Championships.
2† TRACK RACING
2A† TRACK MARKINGS
2A1† All lines on the track shall be of uniform width between 4 and 6 cm. The following shall be placed circumferentially around the track:
(a) The measurement line shall be black or white, to contrast with the track, and shall be placed with its inner edge 20 cm from the inner edge of the track. It shall be marked off at every 5 meters and numbered at every 10 meters going counterclockwise from the finish line. The official length of the track is to be measured on the inner edge of this line.
(b) The sprinters line shall be red and shall be placed with its outer edge 90 cm from the inner edge of the track.
(c) A blue band at least 20 cm wide shall be placed below the inner edge of the track all the way around.
2A2† The following lines shall be placed perpendicular to the inner edge:
(a) The finish line shall be black and placed in the middle of a 72 cm wide white strip for contrast.
(b) The 200 meter line shall be either black or white to contrast with the track and shall be placed 200 meters before the finish line. This line is used for sprint timing only.
(c) Two pursuit finish lines shall be red and located exactly in the middle of the two straights, even with each other, and shall extend from the inner edge halfway across the track.
(d) Where the finish lines for timed events do not coincide with other markings they shall be red and shall extend from the inner edge halfway across the track.
(e) Where the starting lines for timed events do not coincide with other markings, they shall be red and shall extend from the lower edge of the track to the sprinters line.
2B† RIDING CONDUCT
These rules apply to scratch,
2B1 †Leaders must occupy the sprinters lane unless far enough in the lead so as not to interfere with competitors seeking to pass. If the leader is below the sprinters line, the following riders may not pass underneath [relegation or disqualification
2B2 †A competitor overtaking another must pass on the outside unless the rider ahead is riding above the sprinters line. A rider who passes another must not in any way impede the progress of the passed rider [relegation or disqualification].
2B3† In the homestretch on the last lap, the leader(s) must ride a straight line parallel to the edge of the track [relegation or disqualification]
2B4† Blue Band. In all races it is permissible to ride below the measurement line, but never below the track surface on the blue band [relegation or disqualification].
2B5 †When a rider has a crash that does not present a danger to the other riders, the race will not be neutralized. In case of a crash that causes a hazard to the other riders, the race may be neutralized by the starter. While the race is neutralized, all riders must ride slowly around the top of the track, maintaining their relative positions. Resumption of racing will be signaled by the starter when it becomes safe.
2B6 †Riders who suffer a mishap may be assisted in restarting.
2B7 †A rider shall be considered to have gained a lap upon reaching a position to take shelter behind the rearmost rider of the group.
2B8 †Starts will generally be rolling starts. The official will signify the start of the race after riders are determined to be properly bunched so as to give no undue advantage or disadvantage to any rider.† This signal shall be audible, generally a whistle.
2C† SCRATCH RACE
A scratch race is one in which all riders start from the same point at the same time. The race shall be run over a specified number of laps and the riders classified according to the order in which they cross the line on the final lap.
2C1† If permitted by the Chief Referee, free laps up to a distance of 1300 meters may be taken in a case of a mishap. However, free laps may not be taken in the final kilometer of the race.
2C2† Lapped riders not in contention may be removed. When lapped riders are not removed, they will finish on the same lap as the leaders and shall be placed according to the number of laps they are down and then their position at the finish. Riders not finishing will not be placed.
2D† HANDICAP RACE
A handicap race is a race in which the stronger riders are given either a greater distance to travel or a later start so as to equalize competition.
2D1 †The starting positions or the time allowances must be announced to all participants before the start of the race. The official handicapper shall decide what distance or time allowance is to be granted to each competitor. The competitor must supply accurate information to the handicapper.
2D2† Starts will be made on the track itself unless the banking is too steep for safety, in which case the competitors shall start on the blue band. If two or more riders are to start from the same point, they may be placed one after the other or side by side, whichever is safer. The holders may be allowed to run with their riders for a short distance at the start, provided this is clearly stated before the race.
2D3 †The starter shall be positioned so as to see all riders and may have an assistant with a flag to assist in observing a possible false start.
A miss-and-out (sometimes called "devil take the hindmost") is a mass start race in which the last rider over the line on designated laps is eliminated from the race. Riders may be eliminated every lap, every other lap, or on whatever regular schedule is stipulated before the race. Gaining a lap shall not prevent a rider from being pulled nor matter in the final placings. The back edge of the rear tire determines who is the last rider over the line.
2E1† The Chief Judge shall notify the last rider over the line. The rider shall withdraw with due caution as soon as it is practical. If a rider does not withdraw as instructed, the Chief Referee may call one or more free laps until the rider has retired. [A rider who blatantly disregards instructions to leave the field shall be subject to disqualification from the remaining events in the meet and other penalties.]
2E2 †Riders suffering mishaps shall be eliminated. When fewer than 8 riders remain, riders suffering mishaps shall be placed ahead of riders already eliminated.
2E3† Finish - the miss-and-out may be ridden to the last person or to a specified number of survivors. In the latter case, there may be a free lap followed by a conventional sprint, judged on the order of finish by the front wheels. The format to be used must be explained to all riders before the start of the race.
Track Sprints involve a series of races, each with a small number of riders. The number and composition of the races is organized by the Chief Referee to meet the needs of the racing program for the number of riders. The sprint rounds may be preceded by a flying start 200 meter time trial to seed or select riders who will take part in the sprint heats. Formats may include:
2F1 †Championship format - riders compete in qualifying and succeeding rounds in such a way that the fastest riders shall meet in the final race.
2F2 Round robin format - each entrant competes against every other entrant. The winning rider of each pairing shall receive one point. The overall placings are determined by the number of points gained in all matches. If a rider does not complete the entire series of matches, then any points gained by or at the expense of that rider are canceled. In case of a tie, the tie will be broken in favor of the rider who:
(1) Scored the greatest number of points in the matches against the other tied riders; or,
(2) If still tied, has the highest placing in an additional sprint in which all riders who are still tied compete, or
(3) If still tied, wins a final match of the tied riders
2F3† Exhibition sprints follow the format of championship sprints, but may vary in the number of competitors allowed in the qualifying and final rounds and in the distance of the sprints. Repechage rounds and the requirement that a rider lose twice before being eliminated may be omitted.
2F4† Bicycles -when rider seeding is based on a time trial, only bicycles that meet sprint standards shall be used.
2F5 †Distance - sprints are run over three laps on a track of 333.33 meters or less, or over two laps on a larger track.
2F6 †The starting position of each rider shall be decided by the drawing of lots. The rider drawing the inside position is obligated to lead the first lap at a minimum of a walking pace, except that if another rider chooses to take the lead then he assumes this obligation.
(a) The obligated rider may not stand still until the first lap is completed with both wheels entirely across the finish line. Failure of the obligated rider to maintain a walking pace on the first lap will result in the race being stopped and restarted with the rider responsible for the stoppage leading in the reride.
(b) Riders are not permitted to stand still for more than 3 minutes during a race. After this period, the rider who was obligated at the end of the first lap shall move off on the signal of the starter.
(c) Should the race be run in two heats, each rider shall lead one heat. A further draw shall be made if a third and deciding heat proves necessary.
2F7† Stoppage - once the start has been given and judged valid by the starter, the race shall not be stopped without a legitimate reason. During the slow part of the race, the starter may stop the race if a rider:
(1) Backs up more than 20 cm (8 inches) (1/4 wheel rotation with a 700c tire);
(2) Does a standstill on the blue band;
(3) Touches the track surface or the outside fence or railing;
(4) During a standstill touches an opponent or jumps his bike;
[The rider responsible shall lead the reride]
2F8† Mishaps - Should any rider suffer a mishap at any time during the race, a restart shall be signaled by the starter unless it is obvious that at the moment, the rider concerned had no chance to place. In a reride following a mishap, the starting positions of the riders are not changed.
[Should a race be stopped because of an apparent mishap that turns out to not be legitimate, the race shall be restarted without the rider at fault].
2F9 †Before the sprint has begun riders may utilize the full width of the track, but must leave room on the right for riders to pass and avoid movements that could cause a collision, a fall, or force a rider off the track.
2F10† Once the sprint has begun (the riders are moving at full speed or near full speed):
(a) No rider may attempt to overtake an opponent using the blue band, either while passing or pulling out of a passing maneuver;
(b) The leader must always leave room on the right for other riders to pass. The leader is not obligated to leave room on the left, but may not enter the sprinters lane if it is occupied, except with a clear lead, and in no case may force an opponent off the track;
(c) If the leader is below the sprinters line, he or she must stay below the sprinters line until the finish and all following riders must pass on the right and outside the sprinters lane. However, the leader may come out of the sprinters lane if he or she is so far ahead that there is no hindrance to opponents;
(d) If the leader is riding above the sprinters line, he or she shall make no abrupt motion to keep other riders from passing and may make no move to the right (whether abrupt or not) that could have caused a fall or that exceeds 90 cm. (same as the width of the sprinters lane). Following riders may pass on either side. The leader may move to the left into the sprinters lane only if the trailing edge of the leader's rear wheel is ahead of the leading edge of the front wheel of the following rider [relegation for foul riding]. There is no penalty at the finish if the lead rider accidentally drops below the measurement line or even onto the blue band.
(e) In a sprint with three or more contestants, a rider who is hemmed in at the bottom by other riders may not force his way out of the box, nor may a rider block or interfere with another rider [relegation or disqualification].
2F12† No-shows - if one rider in a two-up heat fails to appear, that rider loses the sprint and the other rider must put in an appearance on the starting line in order to be declared the winner, but need not cover the distance. The losing rider may compete in a subsequent ride.
2F13† Blocking - in a sprint with three or more contestants, a rider who is hemmed in at the bottom by other riders may not force his way out of the box, nor may a rider block or interfere with another rider [relegation or disqualification].
2F14† No rider may deliberately cause a crash [disqualification]. Whenever such a situation is detected the race should be stopped, if not completed, and in any case shall be rerun without the rider responsible. In the case of an accidental collision before the sprint has begun, the race will be stopped by the starter and rerun with the original participants in the same starting positions.
2F15 †In the case of a dead heat, the race will be rerun with only the riders who made the dead heat.
2G† TANDEM SPRINT
Tandem sprint events on the track shall be run in accordance with sprint regulations except that:
(1) Tandem sprints shall be run over the integral number of laps nearest to 1500 meters for the particular track;
(2) In no case shall more than four tandems be raced together, or three on tracks smaller than 333 meters
(3) When flying start time trials are used to seed riders, the timing distance shall be either the complete length of the track or 400 meters, whichever is less.
A Keirin is a race in which riders sprint after completing a certain number of laps behind a pacer. The race shall be run over the integral number of laps nearest to 2000 meters for the particular track. No more than nine riders may compete in a Keirin. If the number of entrants warrants, there may be qualification and/or repÍchage rounds leading to a final race. Normally the pacer rides a derny or motorized pacing bicycle; a tandem may be used when practicable. Sprint Rules Apply. Except as provided below, rules regarding track sprint riding shall apply to the Keirin.
2H1† The starting positions of the riders shall be determined by drawing lots. The riders shall be placed side by side on the pursuit line with the sprinters lane being left free. The riders shall be held but not pushed by assistants. The start shall be given when the pacer approaches the pursuit line in the sprinters lane. The rider who drew #1 may be required to follow the wheel of the pacer.
2H2† The pacer shall ride on the measurement line, starting at 25 kph (15 mph) and shall gradually increase speed to 45 kph (28 mph). He shall leave the track when ordered to do so by the starter, in principle 500-700 meters before the finish.
2H3 †In the case of a mishap in the first 30 meters, a false start shall be declared.
2H4† If the leading edge of the front wheel of any rider's bicycle draws even with the pacer's chainset axle while the pacer is still on the track, the rider shall be disqualified.
2I† TIME TRIAL
Riders are timed over a fixed distance and compete one at a time. Starts may be either flying or standing, as specified. If a session is interrupted, all competitors must ride in a subsequent session. In flying start events, two laps are permitted on tracks 333 m or less in length before timing starts.
2I1† Standing Start Events - the rider shall be held by an official at the start and shall be neither restrained nor pushed. The starter shall insure that each rider starts within the sprinters lane, with the leading edge of the front wheel directly over the starting line and the bicycle not pointed up or down the track.
2I2† Restarts - in case of an apparent mishap, the officials shall immediately determine the cause. If the mishap is verified, the rider is entitled to a delayed restart, which will be made after the next five riders have started. If there are not five riders remaining, the restart shall be after 10 minutes [any rider who intentionally causes a mishap shall be disqualified]. A rider is permitted at most, two restarts.
2I3† Should two or more riders make the same time, they shall be placed equally.
2I4† The blue band shall be made impractical for riding by the placement of sponges 50 cm by 8 cm by 8 cm in the turns at 5 meter intervals 20 cm below the lower edge of the measurement line. [No penalty for riding on sponges, disqualification for riding below the sponges.]
2J† INDIVIDUAL PURSUIT
Individual Pursuit is a time trialed race between competitors who are started at equal intervals around the track, and is run until one rider catches the others or until a certain distance is covered, as specified in advance. A rider catches another by overtaking and drawing even.
Race format - At a minimum there will be a single ride and racers will be ranked by time. There may be further rounds at the discretion of the race organizer. The format for the organization of pursuit rounds shall be clearly explained to the riders prior to the race, preferable posted or in writing.
2J1† Timing - Both riders will be timed at half-laps throughout the race.
Coach - One person only may indicate a rider's position in relation to the other rider. That person may occupy a position before or after the rider's finish line, but shall not make any rash gestures of encouragement.
2J2† Recovery Interval - A rider may not participate in more than two pursuit matches on the same day except in unavoidable circumstances, which shall be decided by the Chief Referee. A minimum interval of two hours must be allowed between rides.
(a) There shall be separate lap cards and a bell for each rider.
(b) A red disc shall be placed in the home straight and a green disc in the back straight exactly at the starting points of each rider. There shall be conspicuous markers 30 meters ahead of the starting point of each rider.
(c) A single green flag and a single red flag may mark the first kilometer of each rider respectively. A double green flag and a double red flag may mark the last kilometer of each rider respectively. These discs and flags permit the starter to determine the location of the rider for the purpose of calling restarts.
(a) The two riders shall be positioned to start on the inside of the track diametrically opposite each other.
(b) The start shall be by gunshot. The starter and assistant starter shall be in the center of the track. The riders shall be held by officials and neither restrained nor pushed. The same two officials shall hold all riders if possible. The referees located at each starting point shall insure that all riders start in exactly the same manner, with the front part of their front wheel directly over the starting line and the bicycle not pointed up or down the track. The referee puts up a flag when the rider is ready.
(c) The starter within the first 30 meters shall call a false start should either rider move forward before the gun is fired or if either rider is pushed.
(d) After the qualifying round, the rider with the faster time in the preceding round shall be started so as to finish in the home straight.
(a) The officials must immediately determine the cause for stoppage and whether or not a legitimate mishap has occurred.
(b) Qualifying round: If either rider has a mishap, the other rider shall continue the time trial. The rider suffering the mishap shall ride at the end of the qualifying round, either alone or against another rider who has suffered a mishap.
(c) Quarterfinal, semifinal, or final: If either rider has a mishap in the first kilometer, the race will be stopped and entirely rerun. If a mishap occurs after the first kilometer but before the last, the race will be stopped and restarted with both riders positioned relative to the last half-lap lines they crossed; the race leader will be on the line and the other rider a distance back of the line equivalent to the gap in seconds, given by:
B = (G x L) / (2 x T)
B = Distance back of the half-lap line for the slower rider;
G = Gap in seconds between the time of the faster and slower rider at the last completed half-lap;
L = Length of one lap of the track;
T = Time of the slower rider in completing the last half-lap.
If either rider suffers a mishap in the last kilometer, the starter shall stop the race and the times at the preceding half-lap shall be used to decide the winner. Should the lead rider have a mishap in the last kilometer of the quarterfinals, this rider's average speed will be used to calculate a time to allow a fair placement in the semifinal, where the formula for the corrected time is:
C = L x R / D
C = Corrected time for the lead rider;
L = Time of the lead rider up to the last completed half-lap;
R = Total distance of the race;
D = Completed distance up to the last half-lap.
(a) Quarterfinal: A rider who catches the other must complete the distance to record a time so as to be properly placed in the semifinal. The rider who was caught is eliminated.
(b) Semifinal or Final: If one rider passes the other, the starter shall signal the end of the race.
(c) In all rounds, if neither rider catches the other, then a single gunshot shall be fired when the first rider finishes and another fired when the second rider finishes.
(d) If both riders have the same time at the finish, the riders shall be placed according to the faster lap time nearest the finish.
(e) Qualifying rounds: If a rider is caught both riders complete the distance for time.
2K† TEAM PURSUIT
Pursuit teams are made up of two or more riders. The rules for a particular event must be explained to all participants before the start, preferably posted or in writing. The explanation must specify how many riders must finish and on which finisher the time is taken.
Italian pursuit is a race between teams of any number of riders over a specified distance. The teams are spaced at equal intervals around the track at the start. The leading rider of each team shall lead for one or two laps, as specified, then pull off. The second rider shall then take the lead for the same number of laps and also stop. The same procedure shall be followed until there is only one rider on the track per team during the last one or two laps. The team whose last rider is farthest ahead as compared to the teamís starting position, wins.
2K1† Championship team pursuit.
Teams shall have three or four riders per team and cover a distance of 4,000 meters. There may be up to six riders entered for each team but a racing team of no more than four riders may compete in a given session. Timing is taken from the front wheel of the third rider. Both teams will be timed at full laps throughout the race.
2K2† Coach - only one person may indicate a team's position in relation to the other team. That person may occupy a position before or after the finish line, but shall not make any rash gestures of encouragement.
2K3† Recovery Interval -† team should not participate in more than two pursuit matches on the same day except in unavoidable circumstances as determined by the Chief Referee. A minimum of two hours should be allowed between rides.
2K4† The organization of various rounds in team pursuit shall be included in the explanation of the event.
2K5† The equipment used for team pursuit shall be the same as for individual pursuit except that the red and green flags, which mark the first and last kilometer, are not needed.
(a) The two teams shall be positioned to start on the inside of the track diametrically opposite each other. After the qualifying round, the team with the faster time in the preceding round shall be started so as to finish in the home straight.
(b) Each team must start in the same fashion.† This may be either of two ways:
(1) All four riders on the line with one meter between them or;
(2) Only the first rider on the line and the others at a 45 degree angle back of the first rider with one meter between them.
(c) The start shall be by gunshot. The starter and assistant starter shall be in the center of the track. The teams shall be held by officials and neither restrained nor pushed. The same officials shall hold all riders if possible. The officials located at each starting point shall insure that all riders are lined up properly at the start and that the front part of the front wheel of the first rider is directly over the starting line and that no other rider is ahead of the first. All bicycles must be lined up straight and not pointed up or down the track.
(d) A false start shall be signaled within the first 30 meters if any rider moves forward before the gun is fired or is pushed, or if any rider other than the one on the inside takes the lead before the 30 meter mark.
(e) Each team is allowed two rerides only for false starts. Therefore, a team is entitled to only three starts.
(a) The officials must immediately determine the cause of any stoppage and whether or not a legitimate mishap has occurred.
(b) Should an apparent mishap affecting only one rider not prove legitimate, that rider shall be eliminated and only the remaining three riders allowed in the reride.
(c) Qualifying Round. If one rider on a team has a mishap at any time, the team may decide either to stop or continue to ride one person short. If the team decides to stop, they must make their intention known within one lap after the mishap. If the team continues to ride and finishes one rider short, the resulting time will be used to place them in the next round. If more than one rider on a team has a mishap, the team shall stop and ride again at the end of the qualifying round, either alone or against another team that has also had a mishap.
(d) Quarterfinal, Semifinal, or Final Rounds. If any rider has a mishap in the first half lap, the race will be stopped and restarted by the starter. If one rider on either team has a mishap after the first half lap, the other three riders must continue. If more than one rider on either team has a mishap after the first half lap, the starter shall stop the race and the other team shall be declared the winner.
(a) In the qualifying round, if one team catches the other, both shall continue and record a time for the distance.
(b) In the quarterfinal, if one team catches the other, it shall continue to record a time so that it can be properly placed in the semifinal. The team that was caught is eliminated.
(c) In the semifinal and final, if one team catches the other, the starter shall stop the race. A team is considered to have caught another team when the third rider draws even with the third rider of the overtaken team.
(d) In all rounds, if one team does not catch the other, then a single gunshot shall be fired when the first team finishes the specified distance and another shot when the second team finishes. The team is considered to have finished when the third rider crosses the line.
(e) If both teams have the same time at the finish, the teams shall be placed according to the faster lap times nearest the finish. Three riders must complete the distance or the team cannot be classified.
2K9† No Pushing - the members of a team shall not be allowed to push one another [disqualification in the qualifying round and relegation to the next lower place in subsequent rounds].
2L† TEAM SPRINT
Team Sprint is a race run over three laps of a track by two teams of three riders, each of whom shall lead for one lap. The event may be organized into qualifying heats leading to a final. The qualifying heats select the four best teams on the basis of their times. In the finals, the teams with the two best times ride off for first and second and the others ride off for third and fourth. There may be four riders entered for each team but a racing team of no more than three riders may compete in a given session.
(a) In the finals, the team with the best time shall start in the home straight.
(b) The composition of a team may be modified from one round to another but an incomplete team (less than three riders) may not start.
(c) If any member of a team starts before the pistol shot a false start shall be called.
2L2† Successive Pulls
(a) The leading rider shall move toward the outside of the track after one lap and then drop back and leave the track without hindering the other team.
(b) The rider that was in second position shall lead the following lap and then shall drop out in the same manner.
(c) The third rider shall complete the last lap alone.
(d) The lead rider must relinquish the lead no more than 15 meters before or after the end of the lap that rider is to lead. (A rider relinquishes the lead by moving up the track and out of the way of the next rider by at least 1 meter.)
(e) No rider may push or pull another rider. [Relegation to last place for violation of any of these rules.]
2L3† Mishaps in Qualifying Heats
(a) In case of a recognized mishap, the team may try again at the end of the qualifying heats and the other team continues. However, if the mishap occurs after 30 meters and before the end of the second lap, the team may choose to continue.
(b) In case of an unrecognized mishap:
(1) In the first 30 meters, the lead rider after the mishap shall lead until the end of the second lap. If he is the only rider left, he shall continue alone. If no riders remain, the team shall be placed last.
(2) After 30 meters and before the end of the second lap, any riders remaining shall continue the race and the last lap shall be covered by only a single rider. If no riders remain, the team shall be placed last.
(3) During the last lap, the team shall be placed last.
2L4† Mishaps in Finals
(a) In case of a recognized mishap in the first 30 meters, the race shall be restarted. In case of an unrecognized mishap in the first 30 meters, the other team shall win.
(b) Mishap after 30 meters. Any riders remaining shall continue the race, with the last lap to be covered by a single rider.
The team whose final rider crosses the line first shall be the winner. In case of a tie, the team with the best time on the final lap shall win. All timings are based on the lead rider.
2M† POINTS RACE
A points race is a rolling start scratch race in which sprints for points are held on certain laps as designated by the official. For standard points races this is usually every five laps, or every 2 km. For standard Points races in each sprint, the first four riders shall normally be awarded points in order of finish as follows: 5 points, 3 points, 2 points, 1 point. The number of points may be doubled on the final sprint or on intermediate sprints as designated by the official. Other variations of arranging sprint laps and awarding points may be used in other types of points races, such as Progressive Points, Point-A-Lap, etc. In all cases the highest points are awarded to the riders finishing ahead, i.e. there may be no disincentive points. The arrangement and timing of the sprints will be explained to the riders verbally at the start and/or in writing prior to the race. The main group is the largest group on the track. If two or more groups are the same size, the leading group shall be the main group.
2M1† Gaining Laps
(a) A rider shall be considered to have lapped the main group upon reaching a position to take shelter behind the main group.
A rider or group of riders shall be considered to have taken shelter behind the main group when the distance between the last rider in the main group and the first rider of the overtaking group is less than 5 meters.
(b) Riders who break away continue to score points until they have lapped the main group. Once they have lapped the main group, they must sprint with this group to score additional points, even if they catch the group during a sprint lap.
(c) If the riders are strung out so that no main group exists, the Chief Referee shall determine when a rider or group of riders has passed enough riders to be credited with having gained a lap.
(d) Riders attempting to gain a lap may not accept assistance from riders who have lost contact with the back of the field. Riders attempting to gain a lap may work together, but no sacrifice of a rider's position to the advantage of another rider shall be allowed [loss of points or laps that have been illegally gained].
2M2† Losing Laps
(a) Riders who lose laps may sprint for points only after being absorbed by the main group prior to the beginning of the sprint lap. A rider may be considered to be absorbed when caught by the lead rider in the main group. Riders may win points regardless of how many laps they have lost.
(b) A rider who gains a lap and then loses contact does not lose the lap until absorbed by the main group.
(c) Riders who fall two or more laps behind and are considered to be out of contention may be withdrawn at the discretion of the Chief Referee.
2M3† Free Laps
(a) In case of mishap, the rider involved shall be given one or more free laps totaling nearest to 1300 meters per mishap.
(b) Free laps may not be taken in the final 2000 meters of the race.
(a) A points race ends when the leader completes the required distance or the designated time has elapsed. All other riders will finish on the same lap as the leader. Riders who have mishaps in the last 2000 meters shall retain the points and laps that they had at the time of the mishap relative to the main group. Other riders who fail to complete the race shall not be placed.
(b) Laps gained shall take precedence over points in determining final placings. Points determine the final placings of riders who are equal on laps. When riders are tied on both laps and points, the number of first places in sprints shall be used to break the tie. If still tied, then the number of second places in sprints shall decide. If still tied, then the order of finish in the final sprint shall be used.
If rain or any other circumstance forces the race to be stopped after two-thirds of the distance has been covered, the results shall be final at the point of stoppage. Otherwise, the race shall be rerun according to the instructions of the Chief Referee.
2N1† Relieving Partners
(a) A rider entering the track from the blue band shall do so on the home straight or back straight and must not interfere with riders already on the track. A rider leaving the track should stop on the blue band in one of the straights, but never on turns.
(b) In order to make a change from racing rider to relief rider, a rider must draw even with the teammate. The relay may be made by touching, pushing, pulling, or by merely drawing even with the partner. Handslings may be allowed if so specified by the Chief Referee.
(c) A relay without the partners drawing even (a wireless pickup) may result in a team being penalized a lap.
(d) In relieving, the members of a team must not interfere with other competitors. The relieved rider must stay on the inside of the track or continue in a straight line from wherever the exchange was made until all other riders in that group have passed safely. When the track is clear, the relieved rider may move up the track and proceed slowly until time for the next exchange. If there are special regulations on where the riders must stay, they must be explained clearly to the riders before the race.
(e) Exchanges shall be made as low as possible on the track. Following riders will be expected to ride over exchanging riders. [Relegation, points penalty or laps penalty, disqualification.]
2N2† Mishaps. Should one of the riders suffer a mishap, his teammate shall immediately take the team position and continue to race without relief until his teammate returns. If both riders suffer mishaps, the team shall be entitled to free laps equal to the number of laps nearest 2000 meters. On returning to the race, a member of the team shall resume the position the team occupied before the mishap. There shall be no free laps taken in the final 2000 meters of the race; a team entitled to free laps at that point shall be placed according to the laps and points held at the time of the mishap.
(a) A rider who loses a partner through retirement or mishap may be teamed with another rider who has lost a partner. Such reteaming shall be done at the discretion of the Chief Referee.
(b) In combining the remnants of two teams, the lower lap count and points score of the two teams shall be used. Should the reconstructed team be tied with another team, they shall be placed behind that team.
2N4† Finish. The race ends when the leading team completes the required distance or the designated time has elapsed. All other teams will finish on the same lap as the leader. An audible signal, generally a whistle, is given after all riders have completed the final lap.
3† ROAD RACING
3A† ROAD COURSE
3A1.† A road course shall be designed and implemented with the safety of the riders foremost.
3A2.† The finish line shall be marked on the road and be wide enough for the largest field expected. The course approaching the finish shall be as straight as possible, with an adequate area for rider run-out after the finish. The finish line should also be clearly marked.
3A3.† If the course is not a circuit, signs shall also be placed marking 200 meters and 1 kilometer before the finish.
3B† RIDING CONDUCT
3B1.† Unless instructed otherwise by the Chief Referee, all riders must stay to the right of the centerline, or another portion of the road designated by the Chief Referee.
3B2.† Riders must obey all traffic laws in force.
3B3.† It is forbidden to cross a closed railroad crossing. If the lead riders are stopped by a railroad crossing, the Chief Referee shall restart all riders at the time intervals recorded at their arrival at the crossing. If the lead riders have already crossed, or if the officials are not able to establish time splits, the closure shall be considered unavoidable and no compensation shall be granted.
3B4.† Riders who have suffered a mishap may be pushed for a short distance to help them remount
3B5.† Feeding is under the control of the Chief Referee. Feed zones shall be placed at the widest possible point, preferably on a slight uphill. All feeding shall be done from the right side of the road. Riders are not permitted to litter.
3B6.† Feeding will normally not begin during the first 50 kilometers of a race, and shall end 30 kilometers from the finish. The Chief Referee may make exceptions to this in case of extreme weather.
3C1† Individual road races shall be massed start events, in which all riders start from the same mark, or handicap races, in which starting positions are assigned so as to give all riders an equal chance at winning.
3C2.† Any rider who is out of contention may be directed to withdraw by the Chief Referee. However in stage races at the option of the Chief Referee, any rider who is lapped by the leader of the first group on the course shall finish on the same lap as the leader.
3C3.† Riders on different laps or in different races that are on the course simultaneously may not work together. Lapped riders may not assist or hinder other riders on the lead lap and must be careful not to interfere in any sprint or the finish.
a.† All vehicles in a race caravan are under the direction of the Chief Referee.
b.† No vehicle may pass a refereeís or judgeís vehicle without permission.
c.† All vehicles must be clearly marked and must be authorized to follow the race.
d.† All drivers shall follow all traffic laws in force and any regulations or requirements set out in the Public Road Use Permit.
e.† Assistance to riders may be given only at the rear of a group.
f.† Towing and pacing by vehicles are strictly forbidden.
3D1† A criterium is a circuit race held on a small course entirely closed to traffic. The course shall be between 1 and 5 kilometers in length. At least one repair pit must be set up on the course at the direction of the Chief Referee.
3D2.† The Chief Referee may, at his/her discretion, remove any rider out of contention who is about to be lapped or who has been lapped. If lapped riders are allowed to finish, they shall finish on the same lap as the leader.
3D3.† Riders on different laps may work together, but no rider may drop back to help another rider.
3D4.† Primes are special prizes offered during a race. They may be for any group of riders. They may be either announced in advance or spontaneously. Primes are signaled by a bell on the previous lap, if practicable, otherwise by signs or by other means.
3D5.† If the official race announcement states that the free lap rule is not in effect, no free laps will be given. Otherwise, free laps may be granted for mishaps as follows:
a.† In case of a mishap, the rider(s) shall report to the designated official with his bicycle. Riders may not ride backward on the course to get to a pit, but may cut through the course to reach a pit.
b.† A referee shall inspect the bicycle and rider to determine if the mishap was legitimate.
c.† Normally a rider must return to the race within one lap. In case of a course that is 1 km in length or less, the Chief Referee may allow two laps per mishap.
d.† If the mishap was legitimate the rider will be returned to the place he was in the race at the time of the mishap. If he was in a group he will be returned to the rear of that group. The rider will be ineligible for any sprint prize for one lap after his return
e.† There is no limit on the number of mishaps for which a rider is eligible for a free lap.
f.† No free laps shall be granted during the final laps of the race, as determined and announced by the Chief Referee. A rider having a mishap during these final laps must make up any distance lost.
3E† INDIVIDUAL TIME TRIALS
3E1.† Riders start individually at fixed time intervals. The start order shall be based on a plan proposed by the Organizer and approved by the Chief Referee. Each rider shall know his start time at least 15 minutes before his start. Riders shall all start in the same fashion, either with a holder or with one foot on the ground.
3E2.† A rider arriving late at the start shall only be allowed to start if it does not interfere with a scheduled start. The riderís time shall be based on his/her appointed start time.
3E3.† No rider may ride closer that 25 meters behind and 2 meters to the side of another rider.
3E4.† A rider attempting to pass another rider must complete the pass within 500 meters; otherwise he must drop back at least 25 meters behind the other rider.
3E5.† Support vehicles, if allowed, must remain at least 10 meters behind their rider unless the rider is stopped.
3F† TEAM TIME TRIALS
3F1 †Team Time Trials use the same rules as Individual Time Trials.
3F2 †The number of riders on a team and rules on which rider is timed must be specified in the official race announcement.
3G† STAGE RACE
3G1.† A Stage Race is a series of road races (stages) with an overall order of finish based upon accumulated time or points. The individual stages may be road races, time trials, or criteriums.
3G2.† A rider must normally finish each stage in order to start the next.
3G3.† There may not be more than two stages per day. Normally there is only one stage per day.
3G4.† The Chief Referee and the designated representative of the Association must approve the schedule for the race and any technical regulations.
a.† There may be several classifications (results) for a Stage Race. They may include:
1. †Individual General Classification (GC),
2.† Individual Sprint Classification,
3.† King/Queen of the Mountain,
4.† Team Classification,
5.† Other special classifications desired by the Organizer
b.† Individual General Classification is required. All other classifications are optional. There are normally prizes for each stage as well.
3G6† Individual General Classification (GC)
a.† The Individual General Classification is calculated by adding together each riderís time or points for each stage. For time calculations, fractions of a second are truncated. Fractions are used only to determine time trial stage placings.
b.† In case of a tie, the places for each stage are added together. The lowest sum gets the better place. If still tied, placings in the final stage shall break the tie.
c.† Time or points bonuses are not allowed in time trial stages.
3G7† Individual Sprint Classification
Points classification placings are determined by adding together the points earned in sprints by each rider. Ties in this classification are broken by the number of first places in stages, number of second places in stages, etc.
3G8† King/Queen of the Mountain
The King/Queen of the Mountain shall be determined by adding together the points for each rider in each mountain sprint. Ties are broken by the number of first places in climbs, number of second places in climbs, etc.
3G10† Team Classification
a.† The Team General Classification is calculated by adding together the times or points of the three best team members on each stage. Individual bonuses and penalties do not count toward the team classification.† Team penalties shall be applied toward the team classification.
b.† Ties on the team classification for a stage are broken by the number of total places applied by the riders who counted toward the team classification for each stage. Ties in the final team classification are broken by the number of firsts in the stage team classification, then the number of seconds, etc.
3G11† Time Trial Start Order
The Chief Referee shall decide the start order for a prologue or first stage time trial. Other time trial stages shall start in the inverse order of the Individual General Classification, except that two team members may not start either directly in front of one another if at all possible.
a.† A rider who has a mishap in the last kilometer of a mass start stage shall be considered to have finished the stage and given the same finish time as he would have obviously received. If he was in a group he shall be placed last in that group.
b.† A rider who has a mishap in a prologue time trial shall be given the time of the slowest rider on that stage.
3G13 Timing and Scoring
a.† Riders who finish together shall be given the time of the leading rider in the group.
b.† Any rider finishing beyond 120% of the winnerís time in a mass start stage may be eliminated at the discretion of the Chief Referee.
c.† In a criterium stage where lapped riders are permitted to finish on the same lap as the leader, they shall be assigned a time adjustment that is the riderís average lap time multiplied by the number of laps the rider is behind at the finish.† The formula for this is: A = F x L / (L-D) where A= adjusted finish time of the lapped rider, F= actual finish time of the lapped rider, L= total number of laps in race, and D= number of laps this rider was behind the leaders at the finish.
d.† In a criterium stage where riders who are behind are required to withdraw, they should be considered to have finished the stage and assigned estimated finish times assuming that they would have continued to lose laps at the same rate. The formula for this is: A = W + W / (L-R) where A= adjusted finish time of the withdrawn rider, W= finish time of the winner of the race, L= total number of laps in race, and R= number of laps to go in the race at the time the rider was about to be lapped.
3H1.† The course shall have the following characteristics:
a.† No more than half shall be paved;
b.† The course must be clearly marked;
c.† Barriers shall not exceed 40 cm. In height;
d.† Each lap should be at least 1km in length;
e.† At least 75% of the course should be rideable;
f.† The start should be wide and long so that the stronger riders can get to the front before the narrower part;
g.† The course shall wide enough at all points so that one rider may pass another;
3H2.† Pits shall be under the direction of the Chief Referee.
3H3.† Bicycles may only be exchanged in case of a mechanical problem in the designated pit area(s). The Chief Referee in extreme conditions may permit an exception.
3H4.† Lapped riders may be removed at the discretion of the Chief Referee. If they are permitted to continue, they will finish on the same lap as the leader.
e.† Riders must negotiate all barriers on the course and may not ride around a barrier for any reason.
3H5.† Riders shall remain inside the course following all markings.
Numbered entries in the table below refer to successive offenses in a given race.
Single Day Race
Dangerous riding, holding onto on being pushed by a motor vehicle or other rider for a long time, or not covering the required course and crossing the finish line for a place:
Disqualification and, if team car involved, $30 fine to the team manager.
Disqualification and, if team car involved, $30 fine to the team manager.
Grossly unsportsmanlike conduct or rider not allowing an official car to pass:
Disqualification and possible suspension.
Disqualification and possible suspension.
Illegal clothing or illegal/dangerous equipment:
If before start, not allowed to start; if during race, disqualification.
If before start, not allowed to start; if during race, disqualification.
Rider not holding his/her line in an intermediate sprint:
1. Relegation and 30 second penalty;
2. Relegation and 1 minute;
Rider not holding his/her line in the final sprint:
1. Relegation and 1 minute penalty;
2. Relegation and 2 minutes;
Team support vehicle passing without permission or team support vehicle not allowing an official car to pass:
1. $30 fine;
2. $60 fine;
3. $100 fine.
Failure to sign in when required, signing in for another rider, failure to wear a required jersey (e.g. leaderís jersey), or racing with modified numbers:
2. 30 second penalty and $10 fine;
3. 1 minute and $20;
4. 2 minutes and $50.
Failure to attend the awards ceremony without good reason:
Forfeit half of prize money.
Forfeit half of prize money.
Drafting a vehicle for less than 100 meters in mass start event:
1. 10 second penalty;
2. 30 seconds;
3. 1 minute;
4. 2 minutes;
Each offense-$15 to team manager if a team vehicle.
Drafting a vehicle for more than 100 meters in mass start event:
1. 1 minute penalty;
Each offense-$50 to team manager if a team vehicle.
Repeated pushing by team personnel:
1. 2 minute penalty;
2. 5 minutes;
Each offense-$20 to team manager.
Repeated pushes from bystanders:
1. 10 second penalty;
2. 20 seconds;
3. 30 seconds;
4. 1 minute;
Pushing between riders
2. Relegation or disqualification;
1. 30 second penalty;
2. 1 minute;
3. 3 minutes;
4. 5 minutes;
During final kilometer before a sprint: above penalties doubled and rider placed last in the group.
Pushing off from a vehicle or another rider, failure to obey centerline rule, feeding outside the feed zone, or using glass containers:
1. 30 second penalty;
2. 1 minute;
3. 3 minutes;
4. 5 minutes;
Not following service rules:
2. 30 second penalty;
3. 1 minute, support vehicle removed from caravan;
Team vehicle driving beside rider briefly in time trial:
Each offense-20 second penalty and $20 fine to team manager.
Each offense-20 second penalty and $20 fine to team manager.
Throwing dangerous object on the road:
Disqualification. Each offense-$50 to team manager if a team vehicle involved.
Disqualification. Each offense-$50 to team manager if a team vehicle involved.
Feeding outside designated feed zones:
1. 10 second penalty;
2. 20 seconds;
3. 1 minute;
Drafting violations in time trials:
Time Penalties as determined by the Chief Referee.
Time Penalties as determined by the Chief Referee.
Failure to stay on the course or, for cyclocross, failure to negotiate all barriers:
4† MOUNTAIN BIKE
†[To be determined.]